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Journal of International Studies (JIS) Vol. 1. July/ Dec 2005

Causes and Consequences of the Breakdown of the Middle East Peace Process
Mohamad El-Sayed Selim
Faculty of Economics and Political Science
Cairo University
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper reviews the main correlates for the failure of the Arab-Israeli peace process since its formal inception after the October 1973 War with special emphasis on the breakdown of the Palestinian-Israeli negotiations at the Camp David II Summit held in July 2000. The paper disproves the widely held notion that the Palestinian side was mainly behind such failure by comparing various narratives of the deliberations of the summit. It also looks at the main factors which have been influencing Arab-Israeli relations since September 11, 2001. These are the advent of a neo-conservative administration into power in the USA, the September 11 events in the USA, the invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq by the USA, and the change of Palestinian leadership. This paper shows the impact of these developments for the future of peace in the Middle East and attempts finally to outline the main lessons to be learnt from the failure of the Arab-Israeli peace process for the future of the Middle east.
 

 
Democratization of Islamic Movements: Why Ballot Not Bullet?
Mohd Izani Mohd Zain & Lalla Suriya Ahmad Apandi
Faculty of International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The relationship between Islam and democracy can be viewed based on the participation of Islamic movement in the democratic process through election. This democratization of Islamic movement became more significant in early 1990s when authoritarian governments accepted democracy and introduced the multi-party system. The Islamic movement and Muslims have accepted democracy as the channel to obtain legal political means because some of the principles of democracy such as justice, freedom and equality are embodied in (syura) in Islamic politics. For further discussion on the democratization of Islamic movement, this paper explores several factors that influence Islamic movement to participate in the democratic process through election.
 

 
The Background and Causes of Refugee Problems in Afghanistan
Ummu Atiyah Ahmad Zakuan
Faculty of International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Afghanistan is a country that produces the world's largest single group of refugee emergencies in the world. The causes of refugee flows in Afghanistan are believed to be due to domestic as well as external factors. Domestic factors like local government and different ideologies and external factors such as foreign dominations, have caused conflicts which later led to the flow of refugees in Afghanistan. However, external factors such as foreign domination, have triggered higher flow of refugees in the country. Due to this complexity, the refugee problems still exist. Thus, an understanding on the causes of refugee flow is crucial because the refugee problems need to be tackled from the roots and subsequently this can minimize the problems. Afghanistan is the focal analysis because it produces the largest single group of refugees in the world. The statistics of refugees from Afghanistan are gathered from various sources but mainly from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The statistics are presented from the 1970s until 2003. A general background of refugee numbers from Afghanistan is presented.
 

 
Derivatives Usage in Non-Financial Firms
Mohamad Hanapi Mohamad & Mohd Faizal Mohd Amin
Faculty of International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Derivatives are commonly used by financial firms in order to protect themselves from unforeseen losses due to currency fluctuations. The degree of usage should demonstrate the equivalent level of risk the firms intend to cover, hence the bigger the foreign exchange exposure, the bigger the coverage. This study attempted to describe derivative usage in non-financial firms. Cross section data from developed and developing countries were used to assess the degree of usage. The findings revealed that while in developed countries the usages are very rigorous, derivatives are also becoming popular in developing countries. The reason for the usage also indicated similarity between developed and developing countries.
 

 
"Teori Ancaman China" dan Hubungan Ekonomi Malaysia-China
Ramli Dollah & Wan Shawaluddin Wan Hassan
Sekolah Sains Sosial
Universiti Malaysia Sabah
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Since the introduction of the 'Four Modernizations' in China by Deng Xiaopeng in 1978. China s economy has experienced tremendous development especially when it became an attractive destination for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). This development has changed the status of China from the 'backward' image of a Communist country to a new economic dynamo of growth in the region. Infacing this situation, it is inevitable for Malaysia to deny China s economic expansion. As such, Malaysia has tried to improve its ties with China to ensure that it will share China's economic prosperity. Instead, Malaysia sees China as an opportunity rather than a threat to its economy. This article contends that Malaysia-China economic relations are becoming more important and have a bright prospect to develop in the near future. Although there are issues that at times challenged their relationship, Malaysian leaders ignored the problems and continue to improve their economic ties.
 

 
E-Commerce and Logistics: An Exploratory Study
Adam Dilip Mutum
Faculty of International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Ezllka Mohd Ghazali
Faculty of Business and Accountancy
University Malaya
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
As more companies adopt e-commerce, there is a need for businesses to understand the implications of the virtual value chain activities. This exploratory study looks at how ecommerce has transformed the logistics industry in Malaysia - more specifically at the downstream activities, which include the distribution and sale of products to customers. It also looks at some issues of concern and also opportunities that this brings to the traditional logistics companies. Review of literature shows that e-commerce has had a positive effect on the logistics industry as a whole in the world. It was also revealed that almost all the Malaysian companies (involved in e-commerce) studied, outsourced their delivery services. Choice of the third party logistics (3PL) provider is crucial. Maintaining a good relationship especially communication between the e-commerce companies and the Logistics Service Provider may be a matter of survival.
 

 
The Sports, Politics and Economics of the Hosting of Mega Sports Events in Malaysia: Exploring the Commonwealth Games Of 1998 and the F1 Grand Prix
Mohamed Mustafa Ishak
Faculty of International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Today, bidding to host international sports events is no longer a privilege of certain developed countries. Hosting international sports events has attracted many developing countries, as they have begun to realize the multiple benefits that it can offer. Sports as a form of popular culture that cuts across class, caste and ethnicity has a lot to offer to many developing countries that are still grappling with many crucial national agendas, provided its benefits and potential effects are creatively exploited. The successful hosting of a high-profile international sports event would not only trigger and promote national pride and a sense of patriotism, but quite often, its socio-economic outcome may outweigh the political effects. Whilst the political focus of sports is usually related to aspects such as national pride, improving the image of a nation as well as national unity, the economic dimension of sports has always been linked to economic growth, tourism and creating new frontiers for the economy. Over the past decade Malaysia has seen growing interest and intensive government investment in sports. The success of the Kuala Lumpur 1998 Commonwealth Games and the Sepang Formula 1 Grand Prix has gained the country outstanding international reputation in the hosting of world sports events, despite its average achievements in sports. This paper attempts to examine the underlying factors that prompted Malaysia to actively become involved in promoting itself as a host country for several world sports events in which it has never before partaken nor had achieved international reputation. In addition it will also look into the country sports policy as well as the roles of government and sports bodies in making sports an important dimension to strengthen the country's domestic and international agendas. The paper argues that for many developing countries, the role of government is still far more crucial than any other factors in the development of sports. Sports havefar-reaching implications in the development of a country and should not be viewedmerely as a form of popular culture. Therefore, many more 'focus studies' should becarried out to further apprehend the contribution that sports could make in developingcountries.
 

 
Dinamika Pembangunan Melayu: Dari Kepimpinan Umno
Jamaie Haji Hamil
Fakulti Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
 
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Idea tentang pembangunan Melayu adalah sebuah sejarah kebudayaan Melayu yang panjang dan telah diperkatakan sejak Munshi Abdullah, Syed Sheikh Al-Hadi, Za’ba dan Ungku Aziz lagi. Apa yang mereka maksudkan pembangunan Melayu ialah usaha mempertingkatkan kesedaran dalam kehidupan bagi komuniti masyarakat Melayu tentang pentingnya menerima modenisasi untuk diaplikasikan dalam kehidupan seharian. Justeru itu, idea ‘ Melayu Baru’ yang dicanangkan oleh Mahathir bukanlah satu gagasan baru tetapi membawa maksud yang sama iaitu orang Melayu perlu memiliki budaya kerja yang tekun, rajin, berdisiplin, terbuka dan berdaya saing. Manakala pembangunan Melayu menurut tulisan ini ialah bagaimana etnik Melayu dapat menerima perubahan, pembaharuan, reformasi untuk menolak anggapan bahawa Melayu sering dikaitkan dengan kemunduran. Persoalan pembangunan Melayu dikupas dengan melihat beberapa usaha penting yang pernah dilakukan oleh kepimpinan UMNO sejak era Dato’ Onn Jaafar hingga Abdullah Ahmad Badawi.