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Journal of International Studies (JIS) Vol. 2, 2006

Consular Relations: A Complex and often Misunderstood Peoples' Service
Radziah Abdul Rahim
Faculti of International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Consular relations are as essential in inter-state relation as diplomatic relations, although theirs are focussed on servicing the people or corporate bodies overseas. Nevertheless, the conduct of consular relations is not as simple as most people think for prior to the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (hereinafter, VCCR), 1963, there existed numerous consular treaties. Nor does the service receive as much attention as diplomatic relations. This article examines the factors that gave rise to these situations, which were traced as far back to ancient times with the implementation of the "personality of laws". The emergence of the modem European states had not diminished the practice of providing "customised" jurisdiction for consular agents or officers although states have become more territorial. Conscious effort to bring about some uniformity in consular law and, thus, reduce the confusion that arose from the diversified consular functions and jurisdiction came about only in the twentieth century.
Keywords: Consular Relations and diplomatic relations

Military Necessity and the Restriction on Methods and Means of Warfare
Ahmad Ghazali Abu Hassan
Faculty of International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Laws of war provide it with moral equality that distinguishes it from domestic crimes in that in warfare, some restraint should be observed. Disproportionate destruction of life and property are not permitted and civilian life and civilian property must not be subjected to military force. The need that some restraint should be observed during armed conflict has been recognized since the earliest times in many cultures and religions. Modem international law as stipulated by Article 22 of The Hague Regulations and Article 1 of the Additional Protocol 1 the Geneva Conventions restrict the rights of parties to the conflict to their choice of the methods and means of warfare. In warfare, the employment of weapons and methods of warfare that cause superfluous injury and suffering are not permitted. The same principle applies to the environment. The destruction of environment that exceeds the need to achieve military objectives are not permitted - a development that demonstrates the extend in which environmental issues in warfare has grown in importance. The laws of war also require that civilians and civilian objects be distinguished from the military and be protected from harm. Parties to the conflict are severally responsible to ensure that this rule is observed. In determining the extent of damage and destruction allowed in war, the principle of proportionality should be applied. The main difficulty however lies in how proportionality is interpreted by parties to the conflict.
Keywords: Laws of War, means and methods of warfare, superfluous injury and superfluous damage.

Trends, Problems and Challenges in Managing Piracy Threats in The Straits of Melaka
Kamarulnizam Abdullah & Muhammad Fauzi Abdul Kadir
Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The Melaka Straits is one of the busiest straits in the world. Piracy threats and the advent of 9/11 incidents have created pressures to littoral states, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore, to ensure a safe passage and to avoid disruptions of navigation in the Straits. Given the strait's importance to the East-West trade, littoral states have to respond firmly and promptly to these pressures. The article contends that multilateral approach is the best mechanism in dealing with the threats of regional piracy. Yet there are several problems that need to be addressed by littoral states. Problems in getting suitable assets for surveillance and patrolling, the political sensitivity of the issue in some of littoral states, the issue of jurisdiction, the involvement of neighboring maritime agencies in piracy activities, sophisticated communication network that pirates have, complication in building confidence among littoral states and problems in getting methods of cooperation between the respective nations. These need to be dealt with and taken into consideration in combating piracy in the region. The article concludes that those obstacles have to be given priority, a failure of which could undermine efforts to tackle the issue of piracy and could affect regional stability and economic well-being, and subsequently jeopardize the security of nations and the region.
Keywords: Piracy, Straits of Me/aka and security.

Tun Dr. Mahathir and the Notion of ‘Bangsa Malaysia’
Mohamed Mustafa Ishak
Faculty of International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The question of nation-building has always been a central issue in Malaysian politics. Despite its relatively stable politics and constant economic development, the project of nation-building remained a basic national agenda yet to be fully resolved. The notion of 'Bangsa Malaysia' that was officially introduced by Dr Mahathir in 1991, as part of the package in his Vision 2020 project, was aimed to resolve the 'unfinished business' in the project of nation-building. Vision 2020 is a grand national project span for a period of one generation designed to turn Malaysia into a fully developed state in its 'own mould' by the year 2020. This paper attempts to examine the notion of 'Bangsa Malaysia' as it is envisages by Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad. The paper argues that since there exist a potent interplay between the forces of ethnicity and nationalism that has resulted in the creation of a competing notion of nation-of-intent among the various ethnic groups in Malaysia, the idea of 'Bangsa Malaysia, therefore,' could be seen as an attempt to mediate this contestation. The question is, does the meaning of the concept clear to all Malaysians? To what extent would the notion of 'Bangsa Malaysia' be able to reconcile the competing ethnic ideologies of a nation? Can it be a successful venture, or perhaps add to further complicates the politics of nation-building in Malaysia? It is hoped that this humble contribution would be able to highlight some of the important ideas of Tun Dr. Mahathir's thoughts in regard to the question of ethnic relations and nation-building in Malaysia.
Keywords: Nation-building, Tun. Dr. Mahathir, Bangsa Malaysia and ethnic relations.

Terrorisme Global Menurut Pemikiran Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad
Muhammad Afifi Abdul Razak, Mohamed Mustafa Ishak & RUSDIOMAR
F akulti Pengajian Antarabangsa
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Terrorisme global kini merupakan satu isu hangat di serata dunia. Kepentingannya telah menarik perhatian ramai pihak tennasuk para pemimpin dunia dalam menyuarakan pendapat mereka mengenai perlunya satu kaedah yang paling berkesan dalam membanteras ancamannya daripada merebak dan menjejaskan keselamatan dunia sejagat. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk membincangkan pemikiran Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, mantan perdana menteri Malaysia, mengenai isu terrorisme global. Walaupun pemikiran beliau mengenai terrorisme ini boleh dianggap bukanlah sesuatu yang barn, namun keberanian beliau untuk menyata dan melaksanakan apa yang beliau rasa sebagai betul dalam konteks memerangi terrorisme merupakan sesuatu yang menarik dan harns diberi perhatian yang sewajamya. Demi kebaikan rakyat dan negara, beliau sanggup melakukan dan melaksanakan apa sahaja dasar kerajaan termasuk membanteras terrorisme walaupun ianya mungkin akan menyebabkan beliau menjadi kurang popular. Ini kerana apa yang lebih penting bagi beliau ialah keamanan dan keselamatan negara
Kata kunci : Terrorisme, keselamatan dan Tun. Dr. Mahathir Mohamad.

Islam dan Wacana Pascamodenisme
Mohd Zariat Abdul Rani
Fakulti Bahasa Moden dan Komunikasi
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Dunia intelektual Barat hari ini dikatakan cenderung terhadap corak pemikiran "pascamodenisme". Dapat dikatakan bahawa kecenderungan tersebut kemudiannya turut menjangkau ke dunia Timur. Dalam kalangan masyarakat Islam, kehadiran corak pemikiran "pascamodenisme" rata-rata disambut dengan reaksi yang berbelah-bahagi. Di satu pihak, kehadiran corak pemikiran tersebut disenangi dan disambut baik oleh masyarakat Islam. Di pihak yang lain, kehadiranya tetap dicurigai serta dipertikaikan dengan beberapa alasan. Sesungguhnya, reaksi ini mengundang terhadap perlunya perbincangan yang mengupas soal prinsip pemikiran "pascamodenisme", dan menilai kerelevanannya dalam kehidupan masyarakat Islam. Sehubungan itu, makalah inibertujuan membincangkan tentang corak pemikiran "pascamodenisme" dengan memberi tumpuan terhadap aspek "penolakan terhadap metanaratif' yang menjadi antara prinsip penting pemikiran tersebut. Untuk itu, makalah ini memilih untuk membincangkan wacana seksualiti yang diutarakan oleh Michel Foucault dalam bukunya bertajuk The History of Sexuality: Introduction Volume I (1978). Dengan meneliti tulisan tersebut, perbincangan ini menges an idea Foucault yang cenderung mempertikaikan beberapa prinsip penting dalam fahaman dan amalan seksualiti Barat seperti perakuan terhadap hanya orientasi seks heteroseksual, serta peminggiran orientasi-orientasi seks selain heteroseksual. Kecenderungan ini menyerlahkan prinsip corak pemikiran "pascamodenisme" yang menolak apa yang selama ini dianggap sebagai satu "metanaratif'. Dalam konteks kerangka Tauhid, kecenderungan ini menyerlahkan pertentangan corak pemikiran "pascamodenisme" dengan Islam, dan justeru kerelevanannya dengan kehidupan masyarakat Islam hari ini masih boleh dipersoalkan.
Kata kunci: Islam, Pascamodenisme dan seksualiti.

Tacit Knowledge: The Role And Effectiveness In Acquiring Knowledge In International Strategic Alliances In Malaysia
Fariza Hashim
Faculty of International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This study examines the role of tacit knowledge in the knowledge acquisition process among international strategic alliances firms in Malaysia. The significance of tacit knowledge is discussed and the effectiveness in acquiring the tacit knowledge is analysed. Tacit knowledge plays a vital role in the knowledge acquisition process as it is very important and harder to be acquired compared to explicit knowledge. Two major issues related to the tacitness of knowledge in the knowledge acquisition process are learning capacity and accessibility. Learning capacity and accessibility were examined through personal interviews with 41 Malaysian firms that engaged in international strategic alliances. Data obtained were qualitatively analysed. This study found that Malaysian firms highly depend on foreign partners particularly on the technical knowledge though the relationship has been established for quite some time. Despite creating efforts to reduce the dependency, the reliance on the foreign firms remains high and learning process is rather slow. In accessing the knowledge from the foreign partner, local firms have to deal with eight major challenges and problems. These challenges have limited the local firms ability to learn and acquire more knowledge from the foreign partner. Trust, which closely related to the accessibility, is proved to influence the level of knowledge acquired. A higher degree of trust will ease the process of knowledge acquisition while a lower degree of trust acts vice versa. Therefore, it is essential for the local firms to develop a trust in their international strategic alliances relationship.
Keywords: Tacit knowledge and international strategic alliances .

Outsourcing of IT Services: Malaysia's Scenario
Ainin Sulaiman
Faculty of Business andAccountancy
Vniversiti of Malaya
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper highlights the findings of a study carried out on Infonnation Technology outsourcing (ITO) experience of eighty three Malaysian companies. ITO is by no means new in Malaysia as some companies indicated that they have been outsourcing for at least ten years. This study provides an insight of ITO practices in Malaysia. The study examines the level of ITO, IT services that are most often outsourced, types of ITO arrangements, and the motivations behind the use of this option. It was discovered that the most commonly outsourced IT services are those related to application and software developments and a majority of the companies practice the partial outsourcing approach. In addition, the study also illustrated, that a higher proportion of the companies are outsourcing their IT services to local vendors.
Keywords: IT Outsourcing, Outsourcing Trends, Outsourcing Practices, Malaysia, IT Outsourcing Factors.

Resurgence of Violence in Southern Thailand: The Role of Domestic Factors
Mala Rajo Sathian & Rafidah Datu Derin
Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
Universiti Malaya
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The southernmost provinces of Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat, otherwise known as changwat chaidaen pak tai (southern border provinces), where most of the currentviolence is taking place, proves to be the hardest region for the Thai government tointegrate with Bangkok. These provinces have also experienced endless turmoil sincethey were brought under Bangkok's rule. These resistance movements have taken placeparticularly between the years of 1950s up to 1980s, but in the last decade, have lostmuch of their momentum as a result of improved diplomatic and economic relationswith the central government of Bangkok. However, the beginning of the twenty-firstcentury again witnessed a recurrence or resurgence of similar uprisings. Why has theconflict reappeared? This paper attempts to understand the causes leading to theresurgence of the conflicts despite its waning in the 1980s and 1990s. The paper willfocus in particular on the domestic factors "enabling" the conflict by referring to someof the recent events that have taken place in southern Thailand. The paper argues that the violence in the south is very much attributed to the government's policy, especially the issue of its heavy-handed strategy and in turn, the paper will demonstrate the positive correlation between persecution and violence. The term persecution in this paper is, however, confined to the government's heavy handed strategy that is reflected mainly by operations carried out by the security forces.
Keywords: Southern Thailand, violence, resurgence .

The Closing of the Frontier: A History of the Marine Fisheries of Southeast
Asia c. 1850-2000. John G. Butcher, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
(ISEAS), Singapore, 2004, 442 pp, ISBN 981 230259 X
Mohammad Zaki Ahmad
Department of Strategic Studies
Faculty of International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
The book comprehensively outlines the history of marine fisheries in Southeast Asia from the period of the late nineteenth century to the start of the twenty first century. The greatest value of this book lies on its central theme of discussion that sets apart from other historical literature on marine fisheries. Instead of studying on the general history of marine fisheries, the central theme of the book highlights the movements of fishing grounds in the region's oceanic waters. Based on long and extensive research stretching over 11 years, the focus of the book is on the historical aspect of captured marine fisheries. The author chooses the year 1850 as his starting point of discussion. His selection of periods is justified due to the lack of available historical literature and other written sources on regional fisheries prior to that particular period.

PHD Thesis Abstracts Differences in Market-Oriented Behaviour Levels Across Firm's Domestic and Export Marketing Operations: A Study Of Antecedents And Consequences
Asmat Nizam Abdul Talib
Faculty of International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Researchers are beginning to recognise that organisations often have different levels of market orientation across different aspects of their operations. Focusing on firms involved in export marketing, this study examines how market-oriented behaviour differs across firms' domestic and export marketing operations. In this respect, the study is the first of its kind since it investigates three main issues: (1) to what extent do differences exist in firms' levels of market-oriented behaviour in their domestic markets (i.e., their domestic market-oriented behaviour) and in their export markets (i.e., their export market-oriented behaviour), (2) what are the key drivers of such differences, and (3) what are the performance implications for firms of having different levels of domestic and export market-oriented behaviour.