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Journal of International Studies (JIS) Vol. 6, 2010

Human Rights Violations in Myanmar and the Military Junta’s Defensive Human Rights Diplomacy
Jatswan S. Sidhu
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Once considered the internal domain of states, of late human rights issues and concerns have been frequently raised at the international level through the use of human rights diplomacy. However, human rights diplomacy is not only confined to like-minded states who often raise issues pertaining to human rights violations abroad, but can also employed by states violating human rights as a means for its own defence. Under intense criticism for its abysmal human rights record, the Myanmar regime too has often resorted to human rights diplomacy as a strategy to deflect criticism, mainly from without. In doing so, the regime not only often invokes the notion of sovereignty, but even undertakes systematic attacks on the members of the international media and transnational advocacy groups who raise these issues. In addition and knowing that these issues have often dented its own credibility and legitimacy, the Myanmar junta even embarked on an image-building campaign, namely by enlisting the services of foreign public relations firms. In the light of these developments, this article will analyse how Myanmar’s military regime has used defensive human rights diplomacy to ward-off criticism against its poor human rights record.
Keywords: Human Rights Violations, Myanmar, Military Rule,Defensive Human Rights Diplomacy.

Indonesia, the Cold War and Non-Alignment: Relations of the Early Indonesian Cabinets with the United States, 1950-52*
Richard Mason
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Indonesia, the Cold War and Non-alignment: Relations of the Early Indonesian Cabinets with the United States, 1950-1952. The Cold War initially focused on Europe but promptly spread to encompass the entire globe. By the early 1950s, the Cold War belligerents began to compete for the allegiance of the newly independent nations. Many of the newly independent nations, however, had from the outset, preferred not to choose sides in the Cold War. India, Burma and Indonesia had all purported to pursue a policy of neutralism and non-alignment in the Cold War. This paper discusses the attempts of the newly independent Republic of Indonesia to steer a policy of nonalignment in the Cold War and the challenges thereto posed by the United States' Cold War policies during the early 1950s. It traces the experiences of the Hatta, Natsir and Sukiman cabinets, 1950-1952. The central theme of the paper is the interplay between the Indonesian policy of non-alignment in the Cold War and the US policy of containment. The paper argues that despite their profession to non-alignment, the early Indonesian cabinets had leaned towards the United States. Indonesia fell with the Anglo-American economic and military orbit. Desirous of American aid, Indonesia increasingly compromised on its stance of nonalignment in the Cold War. The dilemma of dependence proved to be a major stumbling block in Indonesia's attempt to pursue non-alignment.
Keywords: United States, Cold War, Containment, Non-alignment, Indonesia

The Moplah Rebellion Reconsidered: Islamic Insurrection in Southern India, 1921-1922
Simon James Bytheway
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Contemporary newspaper reports and de-classified archival sources are used to revisit an infamous episode in the long, contentious, and very often violent encounter between colonial rule and the Muslim Moplah peasants. The significance of the Moplah rebellion is re-stated as being relevant and revelatory to all peoples, despite the timelessness of war, as it marks the emergence of protracted (asymmetrical) guerrilla tactics as the dominant mode of anti-colonial warfare. Moreover, the long series of suicide attacks by the Moplahs, and the punitive justice, summary executions, and abuse they experienced as prisoners at the hands of the colonial government, are all appallingly familiar today as part and parcel of ‘modern warfare’. Analysts, educators, policy makers and researchers are invited to review the events that constitute the Moplah rebellion (primarily as they were portrayed by newspaper reporters) in order to grasp the ‘new realities’ the conflict gave rise to, and to appreciate the wider international significance of what happened in Malabar (South India) at that time. Rather than speculate on the psychological and sociological facets of Moplah resistance and the politics of a mass movement, as in the case of the prevailing discourse on the Khilafat movement, new insight into the imbrications of the history of the Moplahs is provided by situating the events of the Moplah rebellion of 1921-22 against the contemporary background of militant Islamism and the on-going ‘War on Terror’.
Keywords: Malabar, Moplah Rebellion, Islamic insurrection, Khilafat Movement

Changing Face of Sea Piracy in the Eastern Indian Ocean Region: Examining India’s Role in Maritime Cooperation
Amrita Dey
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
There is hardly any dispute that the Eastern Indian Ocean like its historical past is once again emerging into a ‘cosmopolitan’ maritime arena underpinned by long stretches of peaceful exchange of commodities, energy and other maritime accessories. It has witnessed a new constellation of ‘inward-looking’ regional powers with a ‘bazaar nexus’ (for mercantile goods and energy supply) with Asian and non-Asian powers. Economically, small and middle powers of this region do share and accommodate all to draw the benefits of a highly globalised ‘closely-knit’ mercantile system. Problems relating to trade hazards—‘maritime mugging,’ ‘sea piracy,’ ‘illegal transfer of arms and ammunition, maritime terrorism, has already been addressed adequately by the collective effort of member nations under the aegis of ASEAN. This goodwill effort in the maritime zone awaits response from the cultural domain as well, which still lacks its frequency and luster of the glorious past. Although loads have been talked about, there has been little in action. The present paper is an attempt to study the community building efforts of ASEAN in connivance with emerging powers like India and China; and efforts at building up an Indian Ocean community as it existed in its past—sans feuds, sans fight—but unhindered exchange of culture and trade.
Keywords: Eastern Indian Ocean, Sea Piracy, Terrorism, India, ASEAN, Maritime Cooperation

The Western Media and the Crisis in Zimbabwe
Knocks Tapiwa Zengeni
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The crisis in Zimbabwe in the past decade has many dimensions. One of the underestimated dimensions is the impact of Western media reportage on the unfolding drama in the country. Biased reportage by some mainstream Western media channels on Zimbabwe has had a negative and damaging effect both on the Mugabe regime as well as the country’s economy. It has also highlighted the excesses of the Mugabe regime in its quest to ensure regime security. In response to these Western media blitz, the Mugabe regime has countered them by stifling media independence in the domestic arena in a calculated strategy aimed at cushioning itself from unfair and biased media attacks. While there is some truth in what is being reported about the Mugabe regime by the Western media, on balance, this paper argues that the role played by the Western media in the ensuing political crisis in Zimbabwe has done more harm than good. In a big way, the Western media has aggravated the political and socioeconomic crisis in Zimbabwe in the past decade.
Keywords: Western Media, Mugabe Regime, Crisis, Zimbabwe

Human Security and the Israel-Palestine Conflict: External vs. Internal Perspectives
Nadia Baranovich & Ravichandran Moorthy
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The formation of the State of Israel in 1948 has led to bloody course of events, which continues to this day, as to who has the right to claim the land home; the Palestinian-Arabs (mostly Muslim) or the Jewish (mostly non-Arab residents). The Israel-Palestine conflict is one of the most violent and bloodiest protracted conflict in the post World War II era, which has resulted in massive human casualties and human rights abuses for decades. The numerous wars in conjunction with the rise of militant groups like Hezbollah and Hamas have led to the development of a human security dilemma in Palestine and Israel. Decades of violence and destruction have resulted in massive human casualties, political chaos and disruption to the way of life of the people in the region. The concept of human security began to enter mainstream human rights, security and international politics debate, more prominently, after the release of the 1994 report United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) report on Human Development. The report is essentially explicit manifestations of the human rights principles enshrined in the 1948 United Nations Declaration of Humans Rights (UNDHR). Human security pushes for intense promotion and greater respect for human life in all spheres of human endeavors. This article inspects the human security dimension present in the Israel-Palestine conflict. This article encompasses two major parts. The first part provides an external understanding of how human security principles can be applied to Israel- Palestine conflict and how it affects the possibility of peace. Secondly, the article addresses the question on how people ‘inside’ the conflict view human security and the possibility of peace.
Keywords: Human Security, Peace, Violence, Terrorism, Israel-Palestine conflict

Noncompliance a Major Threat in Fisheries Management – Experience from the Artisanal Coastal Fisheries of Bangladesh
K.V.Kuperan and K.M. Jahan
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Non-compliance with regulation is a major problem that undermines the effectiveness of the coastal fisheries management in Bangladesh. The result of non-compliance with regulation is over fishing, resource depletion, habitat degradation and resource use conflicts. From a management perspective, it is important to examine the level and causes of non-compliance and explore policies for encouraging or securing compliance. An attempt has been made in this study to investigate these issues in the case of the marine fisheries of Bangladesh. The specific area of interest is the mesh size regulation. Result showed an absolute violation of the mesh size regulation. The study found that the opportunity of getting higher catches and economic returns, weak enforcement, influence of the social environment, ignorance about the law and limited livelihood opportunities are the main causes behind the noncompliance of the fishers with respect to mesh size regulation.
Keywords: Noncompliance, Estuarine Set Bag Net, Marine Set Bag Net, Small Mesh Drift Net Coastal fisheries, Policies for compliance management, Co-management, Bangladesh.

The Origins of the Communist Rule in Eastern Europe: A Brief History
Azlizan Mat Enh
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The history of communist rule is long and varied. Communism as a ruling system emphasizes on economy and balanced distribution of wealth and ownership of property among all the people. This system originated from the ideology of Karl Marx in 1845. Communist system in Eastern Europe was fostered by Soviet Union after the fall of Nazism at the end of World War II. This paper focuses on how the Eastern European states fell under the influence of Communist after World War II. It discusses how salami tactics were used by Soviet Union as one the methods to establish communist government in Eastern Europe. It also shows that Soviet Union’s position as a super power in Eastern Europe enabled her to spread communist ideology in the region.
Keywords: Communist, Eastern Europe, America, Soviet Union, Salami Tactics.