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Journal of International Studies (JIS) Vol. 11, 2015

Restoring Democracy: Australian Responses to Military Coups in Fiji
Andrew Kelly
School of Humanities and Communication Arts
University of Western Sydney
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This article examines Australian responses to successive military coups in Fiji as well as the 2014 Fijian election. In each of Fiji’s three military coups, Australia failed to strike an appropriate balance between simultaneously condemning these military takeovers and taking positive steps toward restoring Fiji to normal democratic processes. Accordingly, this article argues that Australia has habitually viewed Fiji’s military coups through a broader strategic lens which has done little to encourage political change in Suva. Recent positive steps by the Abbott government to normalise relations and assist with Fiji’s 2014 election inspired some degree of confi dence about the future of Fiji and its relationship with Australia. Nevertheless, for Australia to fi nd long-term stability in Fiji, the Abbott government must learn from past mistakes, tread cautiously, and encourage stronger dialogue between the two countries.
Keywords: Military coup, restoring democracy, parliament democracy.

Boko Haram Insurgency and the 2015 General Elections in Nigeria
Emmanuel Ikechi Onah
Department of Political Science
University of Lagos, Nigeria
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This is a study of the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria, and how it affected the 2015 General Elections in the country. The Boko Haram is a Muslim fundamentalist sect founded in 2002, but the insurgency it mounted in Nigeria in 2009 has dovetailed into politics. By the time of the 2015 elections in Nigeria, the insurgency had become the foremost political issue in the country. Boko Haram was central in the campaigns for the elections, and the fortunes of the political parties and their candidates literally depended on where they stood concerning the Boko Haram matter. Interestingly, the elections also affected the fortunes of Boko Haram as the incumbent government at the time had to come out in full force against the sect as a way of shoring up its chances at the polls. Since after the polls, the viability of the insurgency has considerably reduced, although the sect continues to pose a threat to the country. This paper argues that beyond victory in the battlefi eld, the government of Nigeria must also improve on its governance practices in order to remove the socio-economic conditions that help to sustain Boko Haram and other such militant groups in Nigeria.
Keywords: Boko Haram, insurgency, Nigeria, politics, general elections 2015.

Energy Security and Climate Change: India’s Responses to the Challenges
C. Vinodan & Anju Lis Kurian
School of International Relations and Politics
Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India
Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Energy is the prominent navigator of climate change as it contributes to most of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the burning of fossil fuels are the foremost sources of GHG emissions. Climate change is a major challenge for developing countries like India that face large scale climate variability and are exposed to enhanced risks from climate change. Few countries in the world are as vulnerable to the effects of climate change as India is with its vast population that is dependent on the growth of its agrarian economy, its expansive coastal areas and the Himalayan region and islands. The vulnerabilities of climate change and energy insecurity are directing a global changeover towards a low carbon and sustainable energy path. In the UNFCC, India has cleared its stand that it would not make any commitments to trim down its GHG emissions as it has one of the least per capita emissions and in the fi rst place the developed world is responsible for the dilemma and the developing world requires the carbon space to spring up. But by being a responsible and progressive member of the international community, India demonstrated the flexibility towards the endeavours to trim down climate change causalities. India is endowed with diverse natural resources such as solar, wind, water and biomass; these are the promising resources to meet up the energy requirements of the coming years. The present paper attempts to analyse the linkages between climate change and energy security. The paper also aims to project India’s response to the global climate regime. The paper argues that the problems of climate change and energy security are the major obstacles for India’s energy policy while they open gargantuan opportunities to shift its people to cleaner energy trajectories and know-how in the long term.
Keywords: Energy security, climate change, UNFCCC, greenhouse gases, NAPCC, renewable energy sources.

The Korean War and US-Indonesia Relations, 1950-1954
Richard Mason
Institute of Malaysian and International Studies (IKMAS)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The Korean War, which broke out very closely upon the heels of the Communist victory in China, immediately assumed global implications beyond the boundaries of the Korean Peninsula. Essentially a Korean civil war, it immediately became a major ‘hot war’ in the Cold War in Asia. This paper discusses the relations between the United States and Indonesia in the aftermath of the North Korean attack on South Korea, covering the period from the outbreak of the war in 1950 through to the end of the war in 1954. The paper explores the various ways in which the United States attempted to co-opt and coerce Indonesia into the Western camp in the Cold War, and Indonesia’s responses thereto. The central theme of the paper is the interplay between the United States’ policy of containment and the Indonesian policy of non-alignment in the Cold War. An examination of the United States’ policy toward Indonesia, a non-communist but non-aligned nation, vis-à-vis the Korean War, would serve to illustrate the dynamics and nature of the Cold War in Southeast Asia.
Keywords: The Korean War, Cold War, United States, Indonesia, containment, non-alignment.

Nigeria’s Hegemony in West Africa – Counting the Cost
Offu Peter Omaamaka & Okechukwu Groupson-Paul
Department of Political Science, Federal University
Ndufu-Alike, Ikwo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The aim of this study is to examine Nigeria’s hegemony in West Africa and its implications on Nigeria’s national core development programmes. This is done via critical examination of some selected regional and national development indicators with a view to fi nd ways of improving the overall national performance as signifi cant contribution to regional development. On political impact, the study found that successive Nigerian governments were engrossed in unprecedented national corruption than development, diverting billions of dollars meant for national development in the guise of national security, regional peacekeeping, humanitarian intervention and socio-economic development of the sub region. The consequences of such political ineptitude were widespread: failed leadership, clientelism, rentierism, political apathy, escalating national insecurity, wide-spread poverty and unemployment and poor macroeconomic development. Overall, the study opines that Nigeria should shore up greater commitment and responsibility towards her national and human capital development, massively improve the infrastructure, reorientate both military and political elites to ensure integral national growth, overhaul her regional and foreign policy goals to meet her national interest goals as true catalyst for regional development.
Keywords: Hegemonism, national security, regionalism, poverty and national development.

An Appraisal of ASEAN’s Readiness for Community Formation in December 2015
D. S. Ranjit Singh
School of International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The ASEAN Community is expected to be formalized on 31 December 2015. The task of seeing the materialization of the much awaited project has fallen on Malaysia which is currently holding the Chair. The Malaysian team led by the Prime Minister, Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun Abdul Razak is not only making the necessary preparations to host the summit, but is also trying to complete the multitude of uncompleted tasks connected with the integration process. This paper outlines the major milestones that ASEAN has achieved since the organization began to toy with the idea of community formation in 2000 to the present time (October 2015). The paper will then examine the major challenges and shortcomings faced by ASEAN as well as some of the measures crafted by the organization to overcome them.
Keywords: Amalgamated community, pluralistic community, political integration, economic integration, societal integration.

The South Sudan Conflict: Continentalan and International Implications
John Max Chinyanganya & Johns Mhlanga
National Defence College
University of Zimbabwe
Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The South Sudan conflict which started in December 2013 is now entering its second year with continental and international implications far beyond comprehension in terms of human tragedy in one of the world’s newest nations. Continued fi ghting between the government troops and the rebel forces has displaced more than 1 000 000 and killed over 10 0000 people while a humanitarian crisis threatens many more South Sudanese and their neighbouring states. The war risks tearing the country apart as well as creating a potential humanitarian crisis of epic proportions on neighbouring states. Hence, this article examines the continental and international implications of the current South Sudanese confl ict which has roped in the African Union spearheaded by the Inter-Governmental Organization and the United Nations Mission in South Sudan. It argues that the heart of this post-independence conflict in South Sudan is the personal rivalry between President Salva Kiir and his former Vice President Riek Machar. This study attempts to provide a detailed outline of the South Sudanese civil confl ict by conducting an in-depth investigation of secondary data as well as interviews with military peacekeepers imbued with experience on the ground in South Sudan. To address the conflict, this paper suggests that the international community and the country’s leadership need to focus on resolving this personality-driven rivalry to pave way for sustainable peace in the country
Keywords: South Sudan confl ict, Salva Kiir, Riek Machar, the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), Ethnic targeting, the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS)

The United Nations Security Council Reforms and The Permanent Five Challenge: A Historical Perspective
Aderemi Opeyemi Ade-Ibijola
Department of Politics
University of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The manner in which the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is presently constituted remains the greatest challenge to the realization of the ambitions of UNSC permanent seat seekers. For the highly infl uential economic giants better known as the “middle powers”- Japan, India, Brazil, and Germany; and African leading contenders such as Nigeria, South-Africa and Egypt ambitions to yield the desired result, they must mandatorily secure the support of the UNSC Permanent fi ve veto holding members. In light of the foregoing, this paper examines the attempts to reform the UNSC since the late 1960s and the roles of the Permanent fi ve members of the UNSC such as Britain, China, France, USA and Russia regarding this endeavour. Specifi cally, it argues that the Permanent fi ve member’s disposition to this issue has been the major challenge to the much desired reform of the UNSC. The UNSC is the main organ of the United Nations (UN) that is vested with powers to maintain international peace and security. Since its creation in mid 1940s, this organ has been criticized for its undemocratic nature by member states whose region are either not represented in the Security Council (SC) or under-represented.
Keywords: United Nations Security Council, Security Council, United Nations General Assembly, General Assembly, Permanent fi ve, United Nations.

An Evaluation of Malaysia’s Political Leadership in Malaysia-US Relations in the Post 9/11 Era
Mas Juliana Mukhtaruddin
School of International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The 9/11 attacks perpetrated against the United States has impacted Malaysia-US relations in a signifi cant way. Despite the murmurs of disapproval and condemnation from the international community that characterised the controversial US invasion of Iraq in 2003, Malaysia-US relations have grown from strength to strength. It is suggested that Malaysia’s political leadership is one of the contributing factors that has shaped the growing bilateral relationship. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to examine the role played by Malaysia’s political establishment in nurturing the progressive relations between the two countries. Certainly, both Malaysia and the US exist in a dynamic global world that is constantly shaped by events that take place within their surrounding environment.
Keywords: Malaysia, United States, Post 9/11, political leadership, bilateral relations.