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Journal of International Studies (JIS) Vol. 12, 2016

The Impacts of Indonesia and Russia Trade Relations on Indonesia’s Maritime Security
    Hendra Manurung
School of International Relations
Faculty of Humanities, President University
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This article is to examine the increasing development of the bilateral trade relations between the Republic of Indonesia and the Russian Federation. Also it aims at studying the Indonesia-Russia trade relations on Indonesia’s national security. Thus, in pursuit of its national interest, Indonesia is working very hard to further strengthen its bilateral trade relations with Russia. Marking the 50 year old relationship in the beginning of the 21st century, the two countries have booked an increasing trade in their relations. This research employed qualitative research methods featuring descriptive analysis of the data on the bilateral relations within “The Framework of Friendly and Partnership in the 21st century”. Therefore, the author exposed the works of two main consultation mechanisms, namely the Indonesian-Russian Joint Commission on Trade, Economic and Technical Cooperation and the Joint Commission on Military Technical Cooperation under the President Megawati Sukarnoputri administration (2003 - 2004), succeeded by the 1st team of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (2004 -2009) and the 2nd team of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (2009-2014), and President Joko Widodo (2014 - present). An increase is recorded in the overall trade relations of the two countries. Nevertheless, Indonesia still suffered from trade deficit. In addition, the Indonesian defense capability has increased.
Keywords: Trade relations, national interest, national security, partnership, defense cooperation.

Regional Integration and Development in Africa: Between the Rock and a Hard Place
Friday Aworawo
Department of History and Strategic Studies
University of Lagos, Nigeria
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Since independence in the late 1950s, and in the early 1960s, regional integration in Africa has been identified as an important strategy for the acceleration of development in the continent. The reality of the Post-Cold War international economic world order also stimulates the intensification and fine-tuning of existing regional arrangements leading to the establishment of a supra-national organization and capacity building institutions to address the problems of underdevelopment in Africa. As a consequence, numerous integration groupings have been reorganized and created but their achievements have largely been modest due to inappropriate integration approaches. It is against this background that this article examines the interlocking nexus between regional integration and development in Africa, and maintains that Africans need to adjust their orientation as well as take a major shift towards economic complementarity among member states of integration blocs for the actualization of laudable development. It concludes that inward looking and the involvement of all Africans in the regional integration processes would be the best approach for regional integration to foster development.
Keywords: Integration, regional organization, development, Africa.

The Internationalization of Firms: Some Lessons from ASEAN Firms
Mohamad Hanapi Mohamad
School of International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
In the last 50 years the debate on the development of international business remained unsettled, especially that concerning the establishment of multinational firms from developing countries. Using the Ownership Locational Internalization (OLI) Model this paper examined the formation of multinational firms from ASEAN countries. We found positive similarities in the advancement of the firm’s specific ownership advantages such as skills, management know-how, R&D and technological capabilities. Unlike the firms from developed countries, the firms from developing countries adopted local elements in their products and services.
Keywords: Multinational firms, Ownership Locational Internalization, Newly industrialized countries,Less developed countries.

Nigerian Citizens and Fundamental Rights: Myth, Manoeuvre and Reality
Isah Mohammed Shehu, Nazariah Osman & Muhammad Fuad Othman
School of International Studies
College of Law, Government and International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Fundamental rights have importance, concern and challenges to societies and states at local and international levels. Those are, however, more in developing states and democracies. Many Nigerian citizens especially civilians and the poor have gone into despair for most of the citizens’ rights exist only on paper and are not realistic. This paper investigated the fundamental rights of Nigerian citizens: provisions, enforcement, and myth in these rights; reality and manoeuvre by various stake holders in human rights provisions; enforcement and safeguard. The study used secondary sources of data. It is found that fundamental rights provisions and enforcement in Nigeria are constrained by military rule, poor or no political will and commitment, poor constitutional provisions, poor legal aid and services, ignorance of the existing laws and provisions, deliberate acts to thwart the arm of justice, corruption, judicial incompetence, inefficient justice system, socio-cultural provisions, poverty, state aligned threats and intimidations. The study recommends extensive and intensive education and enlightenment to citizens, full monitoring and strict compliance with provisions on rights, broader and functional legal aid services especially to the poor and the ignorant, revamping Nigeria’s justice system to reflect current realities and strict compliance with the rules of engagement by the armed forces, and reviewing laws such as the Penal and Criminal code laws to co-opt new trends and realities.
Keywords: Citizens, constitution, fundamental rights, justice and law.

The United Nations Force Intervention Brigade: Wither the SADC/ICGLR Synchronised Peace Support Efforts in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo Recurring Conflict?
Engelbert Abel Rugeje & Sadiki Maeresera
University of Kwazulu-Natal
King George V Ave, Durban, 4041, South Africa
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
From the time it deployed in the eastern DRC in 2013 up to the first quarter of 2016, arguably no much tangible progress has been made by the United Nations Force Intervention Brigade (UN FIB). The security situation in eastern Congo continues to be unstable. This instability has serious direct security threats and spillover effects on respective neighbouring countries that are either part of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) or the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR). There are certain constraints that the FIB has continued to encounter in the context of regional and international political and strategic dynamics surrounding eastern Congo recurring conflict. This paper argues that one of the contributing factors behind the challenges encountered by the UN Force is the fact that both the ICGLR and the SADC efforts at enhancing peace enforcement in the eastern DRC have been overshadowed by the self-interests of international actors. Arguably, this scenario has impacted negatively on the ICGLR/SADC synchronised efforts towards the effectiveness of the FIB. The paper makes some recommendations on how best to attain sustainable synergy between the ICGLR and SADC in order to enhance the strategic and operational efficiency and the effectiveness of the UN FIB in the eastern Congo conflict.
Keywords: Democratic Republic of Congo, The United Nations Force Intervention Brigade, Synchronised Peace Support Efforts, The International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, Southern African Development Community.

It Is Not Yet ‘Uhuru’: Overcoming the Challenges of Citizenship and Nationality Questions in Post-Separation Sudan and South Sudan
Ferdinand O. Ottoh & Solomon O. Akinboye
Department of Political Science
University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria;;
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper focuses on the nationality and citizenship crisis in post-separation Sudan. The paper argues that the unresolved issues in the agreement, especially the issue of nationality and citizenship are serious threats to the stability of the new state of South Sudan. Both North Sudan and South Sudan have demonstrated a lack of political will to resolve the nationality and citizenship problem. This explains why they were not able to adopt a common legal framework that will help to address the age-long problem instead of each adopting new nationality laws. The paper adopts the historical and institutional-legalistic approach in the discourse to situate the problem. It argues therefore, that the citizenship problem will continue in a system that is stratified along ethnic/racial and religious lines as epitomized in Sudan. We conclude that it is the resolution of outstanding issues of nationality and citizenship question that will help to sharpen the pattern of state-ethnic relations in the separated countries of north and south Sudan. With independence granted to Southern Sudan, the crisis of citizenship remains both in the north and the south.
Keywords: Citizenship, national identity, multiculturalism, national question, nationality, Jus soli and Jus sanguinis, state-building and nation-building.

Trade-Related Environmental Measures under the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Malaysia: The Analysis of its’ Application
1Yanti Ahmad Shafiee & 2Asmah Laili Yeon
1Labuan Faculty of International Finance
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Labuan International Campus
W.P. Labuan
2School of Law, College of Law, Government and International Studies
Universiti Utara Malaysia
1Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
The objective of this study is to explore the application of trade-related environmental measures in Malaysia. Trade-related environmental measures are environmental measures that were invoked which may have an effect on international trade. These measures can be in the form of tariff and non- tariff. As a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), Malaysia is compelled to apply and implement the environmental provisions of the General Agreement of Tariff and Trade (GATT) and the WTO agreements. However, the ability to fully comply with these agreements needs to be determined as Malaysia’s effort in environmental protection could affect its international trading. In this study the analysis was on Malaysia’s domestic legislations; the GATT, especially Article XX; WTO agreements such as the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS), the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and the WTO Dispute Settlement Body decided cases. Secondary data such as journal articles were referred. It is expected that this study could assist in determining the efforts made by Malaysia in finding a balance between international trade and environmental protection.
Keywords: International Economic Law, International Trade, Environmental Protection, Trade-Related Environmental Measures, Malaysia.

Bio-weapons and Bio-terrorism Attacks on Commercial Shipping in Nigeria: The Potential Trojan Horse of the 21st Century
Abdulrazaq O. Abdulkadir
Department of Private & Property Law
Faculty of Law, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
Biological attacks by terrorists may seem more like a plot element in an action film than a realistic threat. The possibility of biological weapons attack could be very remote. Scholars are divergent in their opinions on the plausibility of a biological attack. The U.S. Office of the Director of National Intelligence and the National Intelligence Council stated in 2008 that bio-terrorism is a more likely threat than nuclear terrorism. Researches have revealed that of all weapons of mass destruction, biological weapons constitute the greatest worry. The most likely target for bio-terrorism is a major city or other densely crowded areas, such as transportation hubs like sea ports. This paper probes into Nigerian legislations especially the Nigerian Port Authority Act, the NIMASA Act, the Terrorism Act and the NAFDAC Act regarding biological weapons and bio-terrorism in maritime commerce parlance. It is observed in this paper that all these Acts lack preventive mechanisms in the case of the emergence of the scourge. It is argued that Nigeria is vulnerable to bio-terrorism owing to a dearth of detective measure in the boarder ports. The paper concludes that there is an urgent need to revamp the legal framework to tame the threat of bio-terrorism.    
Keywords: Bio-weapons, bio-terrorism, shipping.

Democracy Consolidation and Governance of the Security Sector in Nigeria:
Trends and Challenges
Olusola Olawale Olasunkanmi
Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
P.M.B. 5454
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
In no other sector is the challenge of governance much more tasking in contemporary Nigeria than security. Conceived broadly to imply both physical and human security, security has remained at the core of Nigeria’s governance challenges since its return to democracy in 1999. Weak institutions, growing inequality, poverty, injustice and corruption have together undermined the capacity of democracy as a preferred system of rule, to salvage the nation’s security from prolonged years of military rule and inept leadership. With Nigeria’s almost two decades of democratic experience, and the recent ushering to power of another party, the first of this development since 1999, there is indeed, an urgent need for the overhaul of the sector if the expected gains of democracy are to be met. It is the contention of this paper that democracy and security are mutually reinforcing and a disconnect can have deleterious implications for Nigeria. This paper also stresses the need to revamp the country’s security institutions especially in the light of the internal challenges of Boko Haram and in particular, militia groups whose propensity to relapse into military confrontation under the guise of the underlying historical problems associated with the Nigerian state are well documented.
Keywords: Democracy consolidation, security and governance.

Nigeria’s ‘Quadrilemma’: Globalization, State Delegitimization, Religious Fundamentalism and Insecurity
1Adeniyi S. Basiru, 2Adeyinka Olasoko & 3Olusesan Osunkoya
1&2 Department of Political Science, University of Lagos
Akoka-Yaba, Nigeria
3 Department of History and Diplomatic Studies
Tai Solarin University of Education
Ijagun, Ogun State, Nigeria
1Corresponding author:
Abstract Ɩ Full Text
This paper examines the forces that have animated insecurity in Africa/Nigeria via the instrumentality of religious fundamentalism. Drawing data mainly from secondary sources, and leaning on social contract theoretical framework, it argues that contrary to the conventional wisdom that Boko-Harm-styled insecurity in Nigeria is fuelled by religious fundamentalism, the real force lies in neo-imperialism masquerading as globalization.To be sure, this global phenomenon though the mechanism of market reforms has further delegitimized and deconstructed the state in Africa. Put differently, it has alienated the state not only from itself but has also succeeded in alienating it from the citizens. With the alienation of the Leviathan from the society, sub-state actors step in to fill the vacuum. This is where ethnic and religious militias come into the picture.The paper submits that remediation lies in the decolonization and the restructuring of the state via the instrumentality of process-led constitution-making.
Keywords: Quadrilemma, globalization, the state, security, decolonization, legitimacy.