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Journal of International Studies (JIS) Vol. 13, 2017

The Impact of Globalization on African Cultureand Politics
1Ibrahim Kawuley Mikail & 2Ainuddin Iskandar Lee Abdullah
1Federal College of Education, Zaria, Nigeria
2School of International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia

Abstract | Full Text
The world is undergoing the process of transition ranging from orthodox traditionalist to the modern colonial system of multipolar divergent domination of colonial agenda and later transcending to bipolar twin ideological dominance of western capitalist and easterncentral planned economy with modern technological development. This trend has really transformed the global scenario to enter into modern clutches since Second World War upto the terminal point of the cold war in early 90’s. Meanwhile, the new post-cold war global agenda came up with new changes such as “modern advancement, revolution in information, communication and technology, globalization, liberalization of economy, democracy and democratization process among others. Content analysis was the methodology that the researchers adopted in this paper. The study reveals that globalization and modernity have detrimental impacts on African culture and politics in areas of its political system, economy, education, religion and socio-psychological systems. The paper recommends that Africansshould maintain their culture, norms and values as well as enhance the national boundary and sovereignty so as meet the challenges of globalization.

Keywords: Impact, globalization, African culture, politics, cultural imperialism.

Independent National Electoral Commission and Campaign Financing Monitoring in Nigeria: The 2015 General Elections
1Babayo Sule, 2Mohd Azizuddin Mohd Sani & 2Bakri Mat
1Department of Political Science, Faculty of Humanities Management and Social
Sciences, Federal University Kashere Gombe Gombe State Nigeria
2School of International Studies, College of Law Government and International Studies,
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia;;

Abstract | Full Text
The Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) is the electoral umpire responsible for the conduct of general elections in Nigeria and other related electoral activities since the resurgence of democratic rule in 1999. One of these important electoral activities carried out by INEC is campaign monitoring and political party financing activities as provided in the Nigerian Constitution and the 2010 Electoral Act. This paper examined the role of INEC in monitoring candidates and parties’ expenditure during the 2015 General Elections. The major problem was the way parties and candidates violated the regulations while INEC as the monitoring body was watchful without any concrete action. The paper used the qualitative method of data collection and analysis where the researchers went to the field and consulted informants in the affected agencies and individuals through interviews and Focus Group Discussions. The data obtained from the field was analysed using tables and other techniques of qualitative data analysis. The paper concludes that, politicians and their political parties spent above the campaign spending limits as provided by law in the 2015 General Elections and the electoral body (INEC) did not monitor properly the campaign spending due to lack of political will from policy-makers and loopholes in the law that empowered them to monitor the spending. The research recommends that for proper and effective campaign financing monitoring in future elections, INEC should be mandated to monitor all politicians and their activities during and after elections, the anti-graft agency (EFCC) should be involved in screening candidates while the Code of Conduct Bureau should be reinforced in watching public servants’ assets.

Keywords: INEC, political party, election, campaign, political financing, regulations.

Comparative Health Analysis of the National Bank, Joint Venture Banks and Foreign Banks in Indonesia
Dudi Rudianto
Bakrie University Jakarta, Indonesia

Abstract | Full Text
The Risk-Based Bank Rating approach (RBBR) is used to determine the health of banks in Indonesia, both for national banks, joint venture banks and foreign banks. This approach uses five (5) proxies, i.e. Non Performing Loan (NPL), Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR), Return on Assets (ROA), Net Interesr Margin (NIM), and the Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR). The overall result of the 5 (five) variables studied show that national banks are healthier than the other two types of banks, namely venture banks and foreign banks, because the national bank has a value beyond the provisions of Bank Indonesia. The partial variable LDR consistently varies significantly between national banks, joint venture banks and foreign banks. The LDR of joint venture banks and foreign banks is higher than the national bank. These conditions indicate that the bargaining position of joint venture banks and foreign banks in serving the needs of public borrowing is much higher than the national bank, which results in increasing the ability of both types of banks in generating profit. Simultaneously throughout the study variables was significantly different among the national banks, joint venture banks and foreign banks..

Keywords: Health bank, RBBR approach, national banks, joint venture banks and foreign banks.

Liberia’s Post-1990 Ecomog Incursion: An Assessment of Anglophone – Francophone Dichotomy

1Abubakar Mohammed Sambo, 2Muhammad Fuad Othman & 3Rusdi Omar
Ghazali Shafie Graduate School of Government
School of International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia

Abstract | Full Text
One of the successful stories of regional economic communities (RECs) today is that of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Founded in 1975, it is a conglomeration of states having similar but distinctively different colonial experiences in West Africa; the Anglophone, the Francophone and the Lexiphone. Contemporary political events in the world had made ECOWAS flexible and receptive to reforms. Although there was little internal wrangling within the ECOWAS member states, because of the transformation and expansion of the economic bloc’s re-establishing, its grasps over political, security and social events within the sub-region after the cold war, the development brought division in ECOWAS, and expressed such in the form of Anglophone and Francophone dichotomy, for reason of not agreeing to military intervention. The ECOWAS shift from non-interference principles to military intervention was noticeable when ECOMOG intervened in Liberia’s 1990 internal conflict; thereby changing her non-interference posture to that of collective security action as an alternative in the sub-region. This paper attempted to establish the shift in ECOWAS security paradigm, leading to a division within ECOWAS member states along ‘linguistic lines’ and how this division affected ECOWAS in the post-Liberian intervention. Additionally, it x-rayed the nature, manifestation and consequences of such dichotomy. The paper recommended a policy option for ECOWAS to guard against future distractions among the member states in order not to divert ECOWAS from achieving her goals of economic integration.

Keywords: ECOWAS, Post-1990, ECOMOG’S incursion, an assessment, Anglophone - Francophone, dichotomy.

Japan – U.S. Relations under the Abe Doctrine: Shifting Policy in East Asia Regional Stability
Hendra Manurung Jababeka Education Park, Jl. Ki Hajar Dewantara
Kota Jababeka, Cikarang Baru,
Bekasi President University Campus, Indonesia

Abstract | Full Text
Reelection of Shinzo Abe as Prime Minister provides a favorable climate for both Donald Trump’s first presidential visit to Japan and an improvement of Chinese-Japanese-U.S. bilateral relations. In the 22 October 2017 ballot, Abe’s dominant Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and its coalition partner Komeito, secured a two-thirds majority in the House of Representatives, the lower house of Japan’s bicameral legislature. The coalition already holds a supermajority, required for amending the constitution, in the upper house. It justified Abe for calling the national elections a year earlier than needed to secure a public mandate for addressing the growing North Korean threat and to validate popular support for deepening national economic reforms, which have had recent success in boosting Japan’s growth rate and the stock market. Still the outcome gave Abe a mandate for his policies. However, his stewardship was unclear as several other factors contributed to LDP’s overwhelming victory. At the structural level, Japan’s first past the post-electoral system tends to amplify electoral wins in comparison to proportional representation systems. Abe’s foreign and security policies highly charged with ideological revisionism contain the potential to shift Japan onto a new international trajectory in East Asia. Its degree of articulation and energy makes for a doctrine capable of displacing the Yoshida Doctrine that has been Japan’s dominant grand strategy in the post-war period. Abe will remain pragmatic and not challenge the status quo. However, Abe has already begun to introduce radical policies that appear to transform national security, US-Japan alliance ties and relations with China and East Asia. The Abe Doctrine is dynamic but high risk. Abe’s revisionism contains fundamental contradictions that may ultimately limit national effectiveness.

Keywords: Abe Doctrine, Shinzo Abe, national leader, Japan, regional security.

 Privatization Policy and Rural Development: An Assessment of Power Holding Company of Nigeria in Ijumu Local Government of Kogi State
1Raji Abdulwasiu Adeyemi, 2Mohd.Haniff Jedin 3Muhammed Subhan & 4Nurhaizal Azam Arif 
1-3School of International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
4Faculty of International Studies, Hiroshima City University, Japan,;;

Abstract | Full Text
The state of electricity supply in Nigeria is nothing to write home about. The situation has resulted in the government adopting the privatization policy as the elixir to the affliction of inadequate power supply in the country. Thus, this paper investigated the privatization policy of the power sector and how it affects development in the rural areas of the Ijumu local government of Kogi State, Nigeria. The modernization theory was adopted in this paper. Data acquired from 120 respondents selected with the use of the three-stage sampling procedure, was analyzed with Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS/PC) Version 20. The study revealed that privatization of the power sector has not transformed into a significant improvement in electricity supply. Consequently, the study recommends that there is need for the government to ensure that the policy adopted should be of optimum form to achieve the desired results.

Keywords: Privatization policy, rural development. Ijumu, Nigeria. JEL: M5 and O1

 The Relevancy of the ‘Guanxi ‘and ‘Xinyong’ Concepts in Chinese Business Capitalization in Indonesia
1Mohammad Fajar Ikhsan, 2Ahmad Bashawir Abdul Ghani & 3Muhammad Subhan
1&2 School of International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
3 Department of Management Universitas PERTAMINA, Indonesia

Abstract | Full Text
The concepts of ‘guanxi’ (relationships and networking) and ‘xinyong’ (interpersonal trust) in Chinese traditional ethics are often studied as the key factors that contribute to the pattern and succession of the ethnic Chinese in business practices which are based on the cultural approach. In the context of Southeast Asia such as in Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, the ethnic Chinese are one of the minority groups whose profession is dominantly that of a businessman or an entrepreneur. As stated in the literature, even though the ethnic Chinese are classified as a minority group in those countries, some of the Chinese capitalist groups had controlled 70-80% of the private business sector. However, these two traditional concepts are not the only main factors of the Chinese business success, but the ‘irregular’ business pattern such as the patronage relationship with political elites also becomes the most important criteria. Hence, this study needed to re-examine and clarify whether the implementation of the guanxi and xinyong concepts in Chinese business activities are still relevant in their business practice due to the political connection in the Chinese business succession also being a dominant variable. This study was based on a fieldwork conducted in Indonesia especially in Medan City of Indonesia and used the descriptive qualitative method through interviews and library research. This aim of this study were three fold: the first was to discuss the relevance of the guanxi and xinyong concept in Chinese business practices, the second was to discuss whether the Chinese business practices were more influenced by a formal community organization or rather influenced by an informal network among Chinese businessmen through guanxi and xinyong bases, third, this study also discussed the challenges faced by the Chinese in attempting their business interests.

Keywords: Ethnic business, Chinese business, guanxi, xinyong, business network, business trust, Indonesia.

 The Implication of Xenophobic Violence on Nigeria-South Africa Relations
1Ismail Bello & 2Sakariyau Rauf Tunde 1School of International Studies Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
2Political Science Department, Nigeria Police Academy Wudil Kano State, Nigeria;

Abstract | Full Text
The renewed xenophobic attacks in South Africa on Nigerians and other Africans is an ugly trend that raises serious concern among experts and analysts of foreign relations. The latest scenario in Pretoria has resulted in the loss of innocent lives and valuable properties destroyed by some militant youths in South Africa. According to Nigeria’s Foreign Affairs and Diaspora Advisor, Abike Dabiri-Erewa, the country has lost about 116 nationals due to the unlawful acts of some hoodlums in South Africa. This remains a significant setback and which poses a threat to the external relations of Nigeria and South Africa. The research relies on secondary data, such as journals, books, Internet materials, newspaper and official communications between South Africa and Nigeria. The ugly trend of xenophobic attack has resulted in a cold war between Nigeria and South Africa in their socio-economic and political relationships. However, the paper infers that adequate actions are required to be taken to restore and guarantee peace for the immigrants residing in South Africa. Failure to curb the menace of xenophobic violence in South Africa might degenerate into regional conflict which invariably will affect the relationship between both nations in all ramifications. The research contributes to existing literature on the issue of xenophobic attack and its impact on foreign relations; it also gives insight on the recent xenophobic attack which occurred in 2017 and its impact on Nigeria and South Africa relations.

Keywords: Foreign relations, xenophobia, apartheid, South Africa, Nigeria.

 The Gradualism of Cultural Resurgence of Afro-Arabic in the Shadow of Civilization
Fatai Owolabi Jamiu
Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun Ijebu-Ode; Ogun State, Nigeria

Abstract | Full Text
Intellectual vitality of the Arabic culture came into stagnation through the close of the 18th century. However, the beginning of the 19th century potrayed the rebirth of the Arabic culture seen first in Lebanon, Syria and Egypt, from where it spread gradually in varying degrees to other parts of the Arab world. This cultural resurgence with its full import of the Arab Muslim society especially in Africa has prompted the rise in Arab national consciousness (nationalism) as well as religious (Islamic) reawakening, which have a wonderful over effect on the contemporary World Order. The methodology adopted in this paper was document review. This paper tried to investigate the gradual process of the Arabic cultural resurgence, which has found expression in the shifting paradigm of Arabic literary works of some literati and religious revivalism in Africa. In fact, it is noticed that Arabism has been an integral part of Islam; the activities of the nationalist movement and that of Islamic reformers have political and cultural consequences in the modern world.

Keywords: Africa, Arab world, Islam, culture.

 Recurring Armed Conflict in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: an Insight into the SADC Intervention Problematique
Sadiki Maeresera & Knocks Tapiwa Zengeni
University of KwaZulu-Natal’s School of Social Sciences, 
South Africa School of International Studies, 
Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia,

Abstract | Full Text
Conflict recurrence in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) provides a litmus test to the Southern African Development Community’s (SADC’s) capacity to sustainably resolve the conflict and build peace. The surrender of the March 23 (M23) rebels, followed by overtures to incorporate the same into the Congolese military and political institutions, seem not to have made much significant impact on the security stability in the eastern part of the country. Armed activities by militia groups such as the Democratic Liberation Forces of Rwanda (FDLR), the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), and various Mayi Mayi groups are likely to cause a recurrence of a fully fledged armed conflict in eastern Congo. Whilst the UN Mission for the Stabilisation of Congo (MONUSCO), along with its Intervention Brigade continue to make efforts to support the Congolese government to address the security situation in the country, this article presents a critical analysis on the prospects and constraints of SADC to sustainably resolve the conflict and build peace in the context of conflict recurrence. For purposes of conflict resolution and peacebuilding, the DRC falls within SADC’s area of sub-regional responsibility, which overlaps that of the International Conference of the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR). The paper looks at the political/diplomatic and military/ security initiatives that SADC can take to complement the current efforts of critical role players such as MONUSCO and ICGLR in sustainably resolving the recurring conflict and building peace.It also analyses the prospects of such sub-regional initiatives. Considering the conflict matrix of the eastern Congo conflict with specific reference to its recurrence, an examination of the likely constraints that SADC could encounter in trying to resolve the eastern Congo conflict will be presented. Policy suggestions will be proffered on what can be done to encounter such constraints.The research adopted a qualitative approach premised on interviews. Secondary sources, including key policy documents and statements of the SADC, AU, ICGLR and UN, were utilised. To complement the primary sources, structured opportunity interviews were conducted at seminars and workshops with academics and senior political and security analysts conversant with the SADC conflict and peace dynamics.

Keywords: Conflict recurrence, SouthernAfricanDevelopmentCommunity, political security, military security.